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Externalised Costs

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  1. Biodiversity insight 2021

    30 November 2021
    Environmental Finance's Biodiversity Insight 2021 publication features articles and expert insight into numerous planned and active biodiversity-related initiatives occurring in the global financial sector. Each article discusses a public or private entity’s development, focus, strategy, and ambition of an initiative aiming for greater inclusion of biodiversity conservation in finance.
  2. Universal circular economy policy goals: Enabling the transition to scale

    3 February 2021
    As industries and governments move towards the circular economy, clear and aligned direction is needed for a rapid transition to scale. This paper proposes five universal policy goals that can help governments build healthier economic recoveries and lower the costs of transition for businesses across sectors.
  3. Relationship-to-profit: A theory of business, markets, and profit for social ecological economics

    Supporting post-growth transformation, this doctoral thesis posits a new theory: relationship-to-profit theory. This explains the social and ecological implications of how businesses relate to profit, and argues that for economies to be sustainable businesses and markets should treat profit as a means rather than an end-in-itself.
  4. Bankrolling plastics: The banks that fund plastic packaging pollution

    5 January 2021
    Banks continue to finance the global plastics chain, despite the significant risks of lender liability from the impacts of plastic waste. This report highlights the lack of development of any due diligence systems, contingent loan criteria, or financing exclusions at the banks when it comes to the plastic packaging industry.
  5. An industry infected: Animal agriculture in a post-COVID world

    In light of COVID-19, this report explores the growing concerns that the animal protein industry is vulnerable to fostering diseases, supply-chain bottlenecks, and food safety issues. FAIRR promotes the Coller FAIRR Protein Producer Index, a tool for investors to analyse how companies address animal welfare, and worker and food safety.
  6. The growth of Australia's LNG industry and the decline in greenhouse gas emission standards: Increased emissions have offset any gains from renewables' rise in electricity generation

    Discusses the growth of Australia’s liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry from 2014-2019. Finding significant growth in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during this period. The report provides a brief history and context of Australia’s LNG boom, explains technical aspects of the industry and outlines four factors accounting for GHG growth.
  7. Active ownership 2.0: The evolution stewardship urgently needs

    Active Ownership 2.0 is a proposed aspirational standard for improved stewardship. It builds on existing practice and expertise but explicitly prioritises the seeking of outcomes over process and activity, and common goals and effort over narrow interests. This paper sets out the case for change and a high-level framework for what the standard could involve.
  8. Unlocking potential: A blueprint for mobilizing finance against slavery and trafficking

    The blueprint is the final report of the Liechtenstein Initiative Financial Sector Commission on Modern Slavery and Human Trafficking. The report covers goals and implementation strategies to strengthen the role of the financial sector in the global effort to end modern slavery and human trafficking, and accelerate action in line with the 2030 Agenda.
  9. Rethinking food and agriculture 2020-2030: The second domestication of plants and animals, the disruption of the cow, and the collapse of industrial livestock farming

    14 September 2019
    Rethinking food and agriculture focuses on new technologies driving the transformation of the food and agriculture sectors and the implications for the cattle industry in the United States. It argues that 2020-2030 will see the current industrialised, animal-agriculture system be replaced with a Food-as-Software model.
  10. Transition risks: How to move ahead

    30 July 2018
    An analysis of how transition risks could impact the financial performance of companies through examples from the utilities, autos and steel sectors. This report provides insight into how the financial performance of companies in these sectors, and others, could vary in the future due to low-carbon economy transitions.
  11. Protecting our best interests: Rediscovering fiduciary obligation

    24 March 2011
    ShareAction (formerly FairPensions) report on the fiduciary obligations of different types of investors, exploring how the interpretation of this relationship has shifted from its traditional meaning. A detailed analysis concludes with recommendations for government departments, regulators and investors, to ensure that fiduciary principles are indeed protecting beneficiaries.
  12. Sustainable management of water resources in agriculture

    This report outlines strategies for the sustainable management of water resources in agriculture across Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nations. It provides policy and management recommendations to ensure water allocation in agriculture remains sustainable among economic, social and environmental demands.
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